Quantum optoelectronics combines principles from quantum mechanics and optoelectronics to create advanced devices for information processing and communication. Motivated by the limitations of classical technologies, quantum optoelectronics seeks to exploit quantum effects to enhance performance. In functional devices, quantum dots and other quantum-confined structures are utilized to control and manipulate light at the quantum level. This field holds promise for developing powerful quantum computers, secure communication systems, and novel sensing technologies.

2. Semiconductor Nanostructures

Semiconductor nanostructures are materials with dimensions on the nanoscale, typically below 100 nanometers, that exhibit unique quantum mechanical properties. The motivation behind studying and utilizing these nanostructures lies in their potential to overcome limitations of conventional semiconductor devices and enable novel functionalities. Quantum dots, nanowires, and nanotubes are examples of semiconductor nanostructures. By controlling the size and composition of these structures, researchers can tailor their electronic and optical properties. 

3. Heterogeneous Integration

Heterogeneous integration involves combining different types of semiconductor materials and technologies on a single chip to enhance performance and functionality. By integrating diverse components like processors, memory, and sensors, heterogeneous integration enables more compact and efficient devices. This approach is crucial for overcoming the limitations of scaling traditional semiconductor technologies and achieving higher levels of performance in next-generation computers. 

Cambridge Centre for Gallium NitrideDept. Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FSUnited Kingdom